Tuesday, December 12, 2017

The Avicennian Tradition - the Iranian and Indian Legacies in Metaphysics

The Avicennian Tradition:
Here is my conceptualisation of what happens to the Avicennian tradition mediated by the commentaries traditions on his works and works directly influenced by him in the later post-classical period primarily in Iran and North India. It has been prepared for my talk later this week in Rome on the later Avicennian period and the role of Mahdī Narāqī (d. 1795) as glossator and critic of Mullā Ṣadrā (d. 1045/1636). The focus is on metaphysics. I should clarify what this is not:

1) It is not a comprehensive account of texts, traditions and contexts. For example, I cite those glosses that I think are particularly significant in the process of the growth of lemmata on particular issues.

2) It does not consider rasāʾil. We know that certain issues took on a life and genre of their own; for example, Fīrūzeh Sāʿatčīān has shown how the Iṯbāt al-wāǧib genre begins with Avicenna's famous proof for the existence of God by radical contingency but goes far beyond. There are particular works in logic such as the Liar's Paradox and types of related paradoxes. There are paradoxes in physics and metaphysics such as the nature of incumbency, concomitance, the simplicity of God, and the semantics of modulation among others. Sometimes the relationship between these paradoxes for teaching purposes is clear through the manuscript tradition as they are collected with the base texts in a single codex. John Walbridge has been studying these texts. 

3) I do not consider the Ottoman contexts or the Central Asian. The former is increasingly well treated by Turkish scholars and those associated with the Nazariyat journal in particular. Khaled el-Rouayheb's recent work on the 17th century also deals with the Ottoman and North African contexts. It would be great if those working on Central Asia would also feed into this process of producing a more connected intellectual history. 

4) These are not the only works of Avicenna on which there are commentaries - the other works that come to mind are al-Naǧāt (on which there is a famous commentary by the little known al-Isfarāyinī) and ʿUyūn al-ḥikma (glossed by Faḫr al-Dīn al-Rāzī). Similarly while the later traditions often cited the Kitāb al-taḥṣīl of Bahmanyār (d. 458/1067) and al-Mabāḥiṯ al-mašriqīya as exemplars of Avicennian positions (as Mullā Ṣadrā does to cite one case), the absence of commentary traditions on them lead me to set them aside for this exercise. 

I should also point out that Asad Ahmed's conceptualisation of the later traditions of maʿqūlāt as 'palimpsests of themselves' strikes me as being rather apposite; texts develop as sets of lemmata that seek their completion in commentary and hence grow through exposition and excavation of the pre-history. In that sense we are not talking about inter-textualities but the growth of texts through their opening forth such that a voice emerges that defines a text. A commentary that is too clear thus represents a closure and accounts for the point at which a particular tradition comes to an end. Of course, this begs the question about Avicenna's own texts: did he not consider them to be the final word? Perhaps he did but as we see from the Taʿlīqāt and Mubāḥaṯāt genres, his students still felt that there were masāʾil that remains and required comment. In fact in that sense the šukūk and masāʾil genres of sets of lemmata go back to those students' questions and Avicenna's responsa. 

Finally, although I focus on metaphysics, the later maʿqūlāt have a certain holistic nature where the issues at stake are more important and hence commentators feel they are open to connect, to excavate, to draw comparisons with discussions in kalām texts, in logical ones and even in various types of exegesis. For example, much of the umūr ʿāmma discussions in Mīr Zāhid on the Šarḥ al-mawāqif intersects with the logical concerns of the commentaries on the Sullam of Bihārī. This does not mean that generic boundaries are not meaningful - after all authors often make a distinction between the usage of terminology according to their technical assignation in their particular sciences. But rather it suggests that the core unit of meaning and debate was the masʾala which often worked across sciences and genres of writing and provided us with such key data for the ways in which texts are studied and contexts and networks understood. Networks are then not so much the vehicle for the dissemination and transmission of texts as codices but as orthographical witnesses to the concerns of those involved in the debates themselves and their compositions. 

So here are the texts and observations:

1)          Metaphysics of al-Šifāʾ:
a.           Most commentaries only cover the first maqāla, rarely on books 9 and 10, most of books 7 and 8 discussion in Taǧrīd commentaries
b.          Commentary tradition only really begins in Šīrāz with the Daštakīs [the only commentary prior is the unicum of al-ʿAllāma al-Ḥillī (d. 725/1325) on the Categories]
c.           Avicennism: Davanī-Mīr Dāmād reading; minority report and critique follows Mullā Ṣadrā (d. 1045/1636) - increasingly replaces the earlier Ṭūsīan reading (although Mullā Ṣadrā develops the two key insights of that Ṭūsīan reading with its focus on the metaphysics of the modulation of existence - taškīk al-wuǧūd - and mental existence - wuǧūd ḏihnī); Mīr Dāmād's essentialism and his position on ḥudūṯ seen as a completion of Avicenna 
d.          Šifāʾ al-qulūb of Mīr Ġiyāṯ al-Dīn Manṣūr Daštakī (d. 949/1542) rather brief and his non-extant Riyāḍ al-riḍwān which was apparently extensive; it would be really useful if we could find either extensive citations of Riyāḍ or a codex - alternatively a careful study of the marginalia of the Rampur codex of the Metaphysics of al-Šifāʾ that belonged to the Daštakīs and then made its way to India may be instructive [this is MS Raza Library Rampur 397]
e.           Mīrzā-ǧān Ḥabīb Allāh Bāġnawī Šīrāzī (d. 995/1587) on books 2 and 3 on categories in Metaphysics
f.             Mīr Dāmād ‘school’: Mīr Dāmād (d. 1040/1631) (there is a copy of the Metaphysics with his corrections and glosses – MS Miškāt Collection at Tehran University Central Library 242 dated Raǧab 949/October 1542), and Miftāḥ al-Šifāʾ of Sayyid Aḥmad ʿAlawī (d. c. 1060/1650) Āštiyānī II, 39–143 sections on eschatology, critique of taškīk, on Platonic forms and the nature of God [implicit critique of Mullā Ṣadrā?]
g.           Šarḥ of Mullā Ṣadrā (d. 1045/1636) on first six books; highly influential on the later critique of Avicenna
h.          translation into Persian by Sayyid ʿAlī b. Muḥammad al-ʿUrayḍī al-Imāmī (d. 1120/1708) student of Ḥusayn Ḫwānsārī (unpublished)
i.             Ḥusayn Ḫwānsārī (d. 1098/1687) first ḥāšiya on first 8 books – defends Davānī readings and some Mīr Dāmād (but not on ḥudūṯ); Āštiyānī I, 376–409
                                                                                              i.         Response of Muḥammad Bāqir Sabzawārī (d. 1090/1681) in his Ḥāšiya ilāhīyāt al-Šifāʾ (partial edition in Āštiyānī II, 546–615, and numerous mss) – defends Mullā Ṣadrā reading
                                                                                           ii.         Ḫwānsārī second ḥāšiya responding to Sabzawārī (unpublished)
j.             ʿAwn iḫwān al-ṣafāʾ of Sayyid Bahāʾ al-Dīn Iṣfahānī known as Fāḍil-i Hindī (d. 1137/1725) – mainly logic and very brief selections on Metaphysics, Āštiyānī III, 661–98 (selections from maqālas 1, 2, 7, 8, and 10) and new edition by Awǧabī
k.          Mīr Ǧamāl al-Dīn Raḍawī (fl. 18th c) mainly on books 1 and 2; remains in manuscript but a good clear copy and follows Mullā Ṣadrā readings 
l.             Nūr al-ʿurafāʾ fī šarḥ ilāhīyāt al-Šifāʾ of Sayyid ʿAbd al-ʿAẓīm b. ʿAlī Riḍā Linjānī (d. after 1231/1816 in India) is a muḥākama between Ḫwānsārī (al-fāḍil) and Mullā Ṣadrā (al-ʿārif) but only up to chapter 4 of book 1, tends to follow Mullā Ṣadrā
m.       Talkhīṣ al-Šifāʾ of Faḍl-i Imām Ḫayrābādī (d. 1244/1829) - I have a copy from Aligarh which I have yet to consult properly but I wonder if it reacts critically to both the Ṣadrian and Mīr Dāmād readings 

2)         Physics of al-Šifāʾ:
a.           Hardly any commentaries:
                                                                                              i.         Ǧamāl al-Dīn Ḫwānsārī (d. 1125/1713) on first two books (unpublished)
                                                                                           ii.         Mīrzā Abū-l-Ḥasan Ǧilwa (d. 1314/1897) – very partial set of glosses on chapters 2, 6, and 8 of book 1 of Physics (published)
b.          Taken up by Hidāyat al-Ḥikma of Aṯīr al-Dīn al-Abharī (d. 663/1265):
                                                                                              i.         Structure: qism I on logic, qism II on Physics, qism II on Metaphysics
1.            II – fann I on general properties of bodies, II on celestial spheres, III on elemental bodies
2.           III – fann I on divisions of being, II on Creator and his attributes, III on intellects, IV on eschatology
3.           Why only Physics in later commentaries as elements of Metaphysics in Taǧrīd cycle and al-Išārāt cycles
                                                                                           ii.         Šarḥ al-hidāya of Mīr Ḥusayn Maybudī (d. 910/1514); important glosses by Mīrzā-ǧān Bāġnawī, Muḥammad al-Aʿlamī (d. c. 960/1553) entitled Ġāyat al-nihāya of which a number of copies are extant including in the British Library, Muṣliḥ al-Dīn Lārī (d. 971/1569) which was important in Ottoman contexts, Mīr Faḫr al-Dīn Sammākī (d. 984/1576) was probably the most important in Iran and North India
                                                                                        iii.         Šarḥ al-hidāya of Mullā Ṣadrā
1.            Many ḥawāšī such as Ḥamdullāh Sandīlī (d. 1160/1747), Mullā Ḥasan (d. 1198/1783), Baḥr al-ʿulūm Muḥammad b. Niẓām al-Dīn (d. 1225/1810)

3)         Ḥikmat al-ʿayn of Dabīrān Kātibī Qazwīnī (d. 675/1276) also annexes some of the discussions of the metaphysics from al-Šifāʾ and commentaries cite the text and Taǧrīd:
a.           Structure: qism I on ilāhī and II on ṭabīʿī
                                                                                              i.         I – maqāla I on umūr ʿāmma, II on categories and on intellect, III on causality, IV on necessary being, V on rational soul
                                                                                           ii.         II – maqāla I on bodies, II on motion, III on spheres, IV on earth, V on vegetative and animal souls  
b.          Īḍāḥ al-maqāṣid of al-ʿAllāma al-Ḥillī (d. 725/1325)
c.           Šarḥ Ḥikmat al-ʿayn of Mīrak Buḫārī (d. c. 740/1340)
                                                                                              i.         Gloss of Ǧurǧānī
                                                                                           ii.         Gloss of Mīrzā-ǧān Bāġnawī on umūr ʿāmma
                                                                                        iii.         Gloss of Ḥusayn Ḫwānsārī
                                                                                         iv.         Gloss of Raḍī Ḫwānsārī (brother)

4)         Al-Išārāt wa-l-tanbīhāt:
a.           Šarḥ of Faḫr al-Dīn al-Rāzī (d. 606/1210)
                                                                                              i.         Kašf al-tamwīhāt fī šarḥ al-tanbīhāt of Sayf al-Dīn al-Āmidī (d. 630/1233)
b.          Ḥall muškilāt al-Išārāt of Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī (d. 672/1274)
                                                                                              i.         Muḥākama of Quṭb al-Dīn Taḥtānī (d. 766/1365)
1.            Ḥāšiya of Mīrzāǧān Bāġnawī
2.           Ḥāšiya of Ǧamāl al-Dīn Ḫwānsārī
                                                                                           ii.         Gloss of Šarīf Ǧurǧānī
                                                                                        iii.         Gloss of Šams al-Dīn Ḫafrī
                                                                                         iv.         Gloss of Manṣūr Daštakī
                                                                                            v.         Gloss of Mīrzā-ǧān Bāġnawī
                                                                                         vi.         Gloss of Sayyid Aḥmad ʿAlawī
                                                                                      vii.         Gloss of ʿAbd al-Razzāq Lāhīǧī (d. 1070/1661)
                                                                                   viii.         Gloss of Ḥusayn Ḫwānsārī
                                                                                         ix.         Gloss of Maǧḏūb ʿAlī Šāh Kabūdarāhangī (d. 1239/1824) – rather brief and follows Narāqī
                                                                                            x.         Glosses of Ǧilwa on namaṭ 1 on Physics
c.           Šarḥ al-Išārāt of al-ʿAllāma al-Ḥillī (d. 725/1325)

5)         Taǧrīd al-iʿtiqād: especially importance of the first section on umūr ʿāmma and third section on iṯbāt al-ṣāniʿ:
a.           Kašf al-murād of al-ʿAllāma al-Ḥillī – most important in Šīʿī context
b.          Šarḥ qadīm = Tasdīd al-qawāʿid of Šams al-Dīn al-Iṣfahānī (d. 749/1348):
                                                                                              i.         ḥāšiya of al-Šarīf al-Ǧurǧānī (d. 816/1414)
                                                                                           ii.         ḥāšiya qadīma of Davānī
1.            ḥāšiya of Ṣadr al-Dīn Daštakī (d. 1497)
2.           ḥāšiya ǧadīda of Davānī
3.           second ḥāšiya of Daštakī
4.           third ḥāšiya of Davānī
5.           ḥāšiya of Manṣūr Daštakī
6.          Naǧm al-Dīn Nayrīzī (d. after 933/1526)
7.           ʿAbd Allāh Yazdī (d. 981/1573)
8.           Mīrzāǧān Bāġnawī (d. 994/1585)
9.          Šāh Fatḥ Allāh Šīrāzī (d. 997/1589) – two extant manuscripts
10.       Sayyid Nūr Allāh Šūštarī (d. 1021/1610)
c.           Šarḥ ǧadīd = ʿAlī al-Qūščī (d. 878/1474):
                                                                                              i.         Ḥāšiya of Ḫafrī on third section with these super-glosses:
1.            Mullā Šamsā Gīlānī (d. 1064/1654), student of Mīr Dāmād and his text Masālik al-yaqīn
2.           Sayyid Ḥusayn b. ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn known as Ḫalīfa Sulṭān (d. 1066/1654), student of Mīr Dāmād
3.           ʿAbd al-Ġaffār Muḥammad b. Yaḥyā Gīlānī, student of Mīr Dāmād
4.           Mīrzā Ibrāhīm (d. 1070/1661) the son of Mullā Ṣadrā
5.           Mīrzā Ḥusayn b. Ibrāhīm Tunikābunī (d. c. 1105/1693), student of Mullā Ṣadrā
6.          ʿAbd al-Razzāq Lāhīǧī (d. 1072/1661), son-in-law of Mullā Ṣadrā
7.           Muḥammad Bāqir Sabzawārī (d. 1090/1679) defends Davānī
8.           Muḥammad Maʿṣūm Qazwinī (d. 1091/1681) defends Davānī
9.          Muḥammad Ḥasan Šīrwānī (d. 1098/1687) defends Davānī
10.       Ǧamāl al-Dīn Ḫwānsārī (d. 1121/1709) defends Davānī
11.        ʿAlī Nūrī (d. 1246/1831)
                                                                                           ii.         Ǧilwa glosses on second section on substance and accident
d.          Šawāriq al-ilhām of ʿAbd al-Razzāq Lāhīǧī on first two sections
e.           Particular issue on taškīk based on discussion in ḥāšiya qadīma of Davānī
                                                                                              i.         ʿAbd Allāh Yazdī
                                                                                           ii.         Mīrzā Rafīʿā Nāʾinī
                                                                                        iii.         Sabzawārī
                                                                                         iv.         Ḥusayn Ḫwānsārī, Risālat taḥqīq al-taškīk [mabḥaṯ al-taškīk fī-l-ḥāšiya al-qadīma li-l-Dawānī], published in Ḫwānsārī, Rasāʾil, 211–266
f.             Al-Barāhīn al-qāṭiʿa of Muḥammad Ǧaʿfar Astarābādī Šarīʿatmadār (d. 1263/1847) – rare complete commentary

6)        Šarḥ al-mawāqif of Šarīf ʿAlī al-Ǧurǧānī (d. 816/1414):
a.           Davānī gloss was were influential and important more in India/Ottoman than Iran
                                                                                              i.         Gloss by Waǧīh al-Dīn Guǧrātī (d. 998/1590), student of a student of Davānī
                                                                                           ii.         Mīrzā-ǧān Bāġnawī supergloss
                                                                                        iii.         ʿAbd al-Salām Dēwī (d. 1040/1630) – influenced by Daštakī via Šīrāzī
                                                                                         iv.         ʿAbd al-Ḥakīm Siyālkūtī (d. 1067/1656) – influenced by Daštakī via Šīrāzī
                                                                                            v.         Mullā Quṭb al-Dīn Sihālwī (d. 1102/1692) - influenced by Daštakī via Šīrāzī
                                                                                         vi.         Amān Allāh Banārasī (d. c. 1133/1721)
b.          Importance of the umūr ʿāmma mediated by Mīr Zāhid Hirawī (d. 1101/1689) on which many marginalia; engages with ontology section that overlaps with the logical lemmata on Sullam al-ʿulūm
                                                                                              i.         Šāh ʿAbd al-Raḥīm (d. 1131/1719) and Šāh Walī Allāh (d. 1176/1762) and sons Šāh ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz (d. 1239/1824) and Šāh Rafīʿ al-Dīn (d. 1233/1818)
                                                                                           ii.         Farangī-maḥall tradition including Mullā Niẓām al-Dīn, Qāḍī Mubārak Gopāmāwī, ʿAbd ʿAlī Baḥr al-ʿulūm, Mullā Ḥasan etc

7)         Šukūk wa masāʾil genre: works including commentaries as sets of lemmata
a.           Best early example is al-Mabāḥiṯ wa-l-šukūk ʿalā l-Išārāt of Šaraf al-Dīn al-Masʿūdī (d. c. 600/1204)
b.          Taḥqīqāt of Mullā Šamsā Gīlānī

One case of modification of the Avicennian tradition – the question of ḥudūṯ:
1)          Ǧurǧānī on section 3 of Taǧrīd commentary
2)         Davānī on section 3 of Taǧrīd commentary and in Anmūḏaǧ al-ʿulūm mentions ḥudūṯ dahrī
3)         Šams al-Dīn Ḫafrī and Ḥusayn Ḫwānsārī debate on section 3 of Taǧrīd
4)         Mīr Dāmād and his defenders – Muḥammad Zamān Kāšānī, Ismāʿīl Ḫāǧūʾī, Mahdī Narāqī


Bibliography:
Sayyid Ǧalāl al-Dīn Āštiyānī (d. 2005 ed.): Muntaḫabātī az āṯār-i ḥukamāʾ-yi ilāhī-yi Īrān, volumes 1–4 (Qumm 1378 Š/1999)
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Mullā Šamsā Gīlānī (d. 1064/1654): Masālik al-yaqīn fī bayān ʿumdat uṣūl al-dīn, ed. Ṭūbā Kirmānī (Tehran 1392 Š/2013)
Gīlānī: Taḥqīqāt dar bayān aḥvāl-i mawǧūdāt, ed. Maqṣūd Muḥammadī (Tehran 1393 Š/2015)
ʿAbd al-Razzāq Fayyāḍ Lāhīǧī (d. 1072/1661): Šawāriq al-ilhām fī šarḥ Taǧrīd al-kalām, ed. Akbar Asad ʿAlī-zāda, volumes 1–5 (Qumm 1391 Š/2012) [on first three sections]
Mīrzā Rafīʿ al-Dīn Muḥammad Nāʾinī (d. 1082/1671): Risālat al-taškīk (MS Marʿašī Qumm 5101, fol. 3r–6r, nastaʿlīq of Muḥammad Bāqir Maǧlisī, dated 1057/1647)
Nāʾinī: Risālat al-taškīk, in Ḫwānsārī, Rasāʾil, 345–354
Ḥusayn Ḫwānsārī (d. 1099/1688): Rasāʾil, ed. Riḍā Ustādī (Qumm 1378 Š/1999)
Ḫwānsārī: al-Ḥāšiya ʿalā l-Šifāʾ (al-ilāhīyāt), ed. Riḍā Ustādī (Qumm 1378 Š/1999)
Ḫwānsārī: al-Ḥāšiya ʿalā l-Šifāʾ (al-ilāhīyāt – Ḥāšiya II) (MS Marʿašī Qumm 13454, 100ff, 1096/1686, copied from holograph dated 1089/1678)
Ǧamāl al-Dīn Ḫwānsārī (d. 1121/1709): al-Ḥāšiya ʿalā ḥāšiyat al-Ḫafrī ʿalā šarḥ al-Taǧrīd, ed. Riḍā Ustādī (Qumm 1378 Š/1999)
Ǧamāl al-Dīn Ḫwānsārī: al-Ḥāšiya ʿalā ṭabīʿīyāt al-Šifāʾ (MS Maǧlis-i šūra-yi islāmī Tehran 1785, to book 3, chapter 1 of al-samāʿ al-ṭabīʿī, 268ff, 12th/18th century)
Ḫwānsārī (Ḥusayn and Ǧamāl al-Dīn): al-Ḥāšiya ʿalā šurūh al-išārāt, ed. Aḥmad al-ʿĀbidī, volumes 1–2 (Qumm 1388 Š/2009)
Sayyid Muḥammad Maʿṣūm Ḥusaynī Qazwīnī (d. 1091/1680): Ḥāšiyat al-Šifāʾ (MS Marʿašī Qumm 3716, fol. 21v–77r, Qazwin 1097/1686)
Muḥammad Yūsuf Rāzī known as Mullā Awliyāʾ (f. 11th/17th century): Ḥāšiyat al-Šifāʾ (MS Marʿašī Qumm 4673, 175ff, autograph)
Sayyid Bahāʾ al-Dīn Iṣfahānī Fāḍil-i Hindī (d. 1137/1725): ʿAwn iḫwān al-Ṣafāʾ ʿalā fahm kitāb al-Šifāʾ: fī-l-manṭiq, ed. ʿAlī Awǧabī (Tehran 1394 Š/2015)
Sayyid Muḥammad Ǧamāl al-Dīn Raḍawī: Ḥāšiyat al-Šifāʾ (MS Maǧlis-i šūra-yi Islāmī Tehran 1786, 423ff, nastaʿlīq of Ibrāhīm b. Muḥammad Ḥusayn, dated 1212/1797)
Mīr Muḥammad Ḥusayn b. ʿAbd al-Bāqī Iṣfahānī Ḫātūnābādī (d. 1233/1817–18): Ḥāšiyat al-Šifāʾ (MS Marʿašī Qumm 4838, 31ff, autograph)
Sayyid ʿAbd al-ʿAẓīm b. ʿAlī-Riḍā Ḥusaynī Linǧanī (d. after 1231/1816): Nūr al-ʿurafāʾ fī šarḥ al-Šifāʾ (MS Marʿašī Qumm 3960, 149ff, autograph)
Muḥammad Ǧaʿfar Astarābādī Šarīʿatmadār (d. 1263/1847): al-Barāhīn al-qāṭiʿa fī šarḥ Taǧrīd al-ʿaqāʾid al-sāṭiʿa, volumes 1–4 (Qumm 1382 Š/2003)